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The most common translation of this ayah is, “The Most beneficent, The Most Merciful.” In contemporary context, such a translation almost fails its purpose as those English words are seldom used in normal speech and literature, let alone being properly understood. Fundamentally, the translation is accurate as the Arabic refers to Mercy, however both arRahman and ar-Raheem are derivatives of Mercy. This is why one needs to understand properly why they are different. Generally speaking, when synonyms are used in the same sentence in Arabic, they are intended to join their unique qualities. Similar, is the case here. Both those words have Rahmah in their roots.
Rahmah means mercy in Arabic, and has also been used as ‘womb’ of the mother. This is from the Arab idea of mercy in the womb of the mother, where the foetus has no worries and all its needs are taken care of by the mother--- hence the child is under the mercy of the mother, from every angle. However, since they are used together, they bring their own qualities to this ayah.